EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH IN 4 PAST AND 4 FUTURE STEPS

PAST

About 4.6 billion years ago, our solar system, the Sun, and the Earth were formed. Four steps followed…

  1. 3.5 billion years ago, the first simple life forms, called “prokaryotes,” came into existence. These prokaryotes were super-simple, microscopic single-celled organisms, basically a bag of cytoplasm with free-floating DNA. They had neither a distinct nucleus nor specialized organelles. Fast-forwarding one billion years…
  2. 2.5 billion years ago, the next step in evolution created what we call “eukaryotes” — life forms that distinguished themselves by incorporating biological “technology” into themselves. This technology allowed them to manipulate energy (via mitochondria) and information (via chromosomes) far more efficiently. Fast forward another billion years for the next step…
  3. 1.5 billion years ago, these early eukaryotes began working collaboratively and formed the first “multi-cellular life,” of which you and I are the ultimate example (a human is a multicellular creature of 10 trillion cells).
  4. The final step I want to highlight happened some 400 million years ago, when lungfish crawled out of the oceans onto the shores, and life evolved from the oceans onto land.

THE NEXT STAGES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION IN 4 STEPS

Today, at a massively accelerated rate — some 100 million times faster than the steps I outlined above — life is undergoing a similar evolution. In this next stage of evolution, we are going from evolution by natural selection (Darwinism) to evolution by intelligent direction.

Allow me to draw the analogy for you:

  1. Simple humans today are analogous to prokaryotes. Simple life, each life form independent of the others, competing and sometimes collaborating.
  2. Just as eukaryotes were created by ingesting technology, humans will incorporate technology into our bodies and brains that will allow us to make vastly more efficient use of information (BCI) and energy.
  3. Enabled with BCI and AI, humans will become massively connected with each other and billions of AIs (computers) via the cloud, analogous to the first multicellular lifeforms 1.5 billion years ago. Such a massive interconnection will lead to the emergence of a new global consciousness and a new organism I call the “meta-intelligence.”
  4. Finally, humanity is about to crawl out of the gravity well of Earth to become a multi-planetary species. Our journey to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and beyond represents the modern-day analogy of journey made by lungfish climbing out of the oceans some 400 million years ago.

THE FOUR FORCES DRIVING THE EVOLUTION AND TRANSFORMATION OF HUMANITY

Four primary driving forces are leading us towards our transformation of humanity into a meta-intelligence both on and off the Earth:

  1. We’re wiring our planet
  2. Emergence of brain-computer interface
  3. Emergence of AI
  4. Opening of the Space Frontier

 

ref: https://futurism.com/humanity-is-about-to-transition-to-evolution-by-intelligent-direction/

Advertisements

Understanding SpaceTime and Everything else

The ontology of time in the external world is real , in the same sense that space is real and made of quarks and stuff ie its a Scientific Ideology. External World Time is scientifically defined as the rate of information travel from one point in space to another ie time = distance / speed. In more deeper sense, Time is the rate of causality.

At the same time (no pun intended), in our internal world, the thing that we call time and that which we can perceive and we can feel the passage of, is completely fictional (genetic ideology) and has no relation to scientific time that has to do with information travel and points in space.

What we need to do is understand the difference between the external (scientific ideology) and the internal (genetic ideology) world.

In the real world, there is space which is a quantum graph where random events exist in different states separated by distance. Then there is the internal world, which is conjured up by this information processing system that uses prediction to optimize it’s response to external events. And it’s distinction between present events that have happened and future ones that it predicts will happen is felt by our consciousness (top layer of the information processing neural network capable of inspecting the processing of other layers) as the passage of time…

If the prediction is super fast, like in times of extreme stress, the passage of time is more vivid and so time feels like it’s slowed down. On the other hand, if the prediction is non conscious, like when doing a repetitive task that does not require conscious focus and constant prediction and decision making, like sleeping or sometimes even mundane tasks like driving/cooking, time seems to fly by….

Now lets talk about External World ie Scientific definition of Time that is defined in terms of information travel across distance. Distances in space are real and speed of light  aka speed of causality (1 light second ie 3*10^8 m/s) is the upper limit of information propagation across space. Hence, if an alien is moving away from you in space, he’s also moving away from you in time coz now the information that you send him (say the information of your wedding, carried by the photons you reflect while getting married) will now reach him later (say by 100 yrs) than it would have, in case he was standing still at a constant distance from you. Also, the information reaching him (via photons) from earth right now is actually the information that is 100 yrs old from the perspective of people on earth, so he’ll just find out there there is WW1 going on in Earth and that’ll be his NOW. Moreover if the same alien is instead moving towards us, then the opposite happens ie he sees events NOW (ie in his present) that the person on earth will not do for the next 100 yrs. Hence, the PAST PRESENT AND FUTURE ALL EXIST SIMULTANEOUSLY.

So, we see billions year old snapshot of the sky (coz light takes billions of light years to reach us from the distant stars) AND a star in the sky sees a billion year old snapshot (called time slice) of the sun (the sunlight reflected by earth will be too weak to travel millions of years).

The only remaining question is if future exists already, is everything predestined or can we change events of the future by conscious choice aka free will?

If the universe is Deterministic, then we can investigating the brain as a information processing system where all thoughts and decisions even those of the upper levels of the neural net (consciousness) are deterministic and so there is no free will (Meaning that the free will that we perceive is actually deterministic too just like all our thoughts and actions. Note that determinism doesn’t mean there’s a man in the sky that has written your destiny, but instead means that the laws of the universe allow are absolute and hence given the previous state, the next state of the universe can be calculated (by a conscious mind aware of these universal laws) and given that the future already exists, all the next states of the universe exist simultaneously.

On the other hand, if the universe is NonDeterministic ie Random due to randomness at the quantum level (quantum uncertainity, fluctuations etc.) and hence runs on probability (ie if God plays dice with the universe) then, clearly a future state cannot exist at the same time as a past state coz there are infinite futures possible from every past state due to quantum randomness. In that case, the only way to reconcile this is to conclude that all possible futures of every present state exist simultaneously. It still doesn’t give us free will, but atleast we can find solace in the fact that there are infinite copies of ourselves at every instant experiencing everything all at the same time.

Hence, we ie the conscious brain is simply a witness to few (due to our limited conscious lifespan) preexisting events in spaceTime (distribution of events in 3d space is called spaceTime).

The reason we cannot witness our future is coz we ie our conscious brain ie our existance ie all the neurons firing in our brain at this instant in space which includes the neurons that constitute our conscious experience is a part of the overall state of the universe that this instant. In the next instance, the laws of the universe will change the state of the universe either deterministically or undeterministically then the new state of our neurons and hence consciousness will allow us to experience this new state as the present and this will go on and on until there will be a state of the universe where our brain will not exist (death) and so we’ll not exist anymore and so our consciousness will not be able to experience that state of the universe. AND YES, THESE FUTURE STATES DO EXIST SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE PAST AND PRESENT STATE IN SPACETIME, but our consciousness exists in only a few states of the universe and so it follows that we can be conscious of only the state we’re in coz that’s the state that our consciousness exists in.

We can still be conscious of the future states of the universe WITH RESPECT TO I.E. RELATIVE TO the present state by MOVING coz Scientific Definition of time is Information Propogation across distance. Hence our current conscious state can be conscious of a past of future state of the universe if it literally travels to that other state of the universe (ie take a conscious chunk of quantum graph namely my brain from one state to another faster than the laws of universe allow ie faster than speed of cuasality), and that’s Time Travel for you. This can be done by travelling faster than information propagation speed or wormholes (moving from one point in space to another faraway point via a shortcut that leverages the shape of spaceTime etc.

In closing, our consciosness is not moving from one state of the universe to another over time. All the states of the universe coexist simultaneously and all that’s happening is that a chunk of conscious quantum graph namely my brain, in one particular state of the universe is perceiving other chunks of the quantum graph in the same state. Also simultaneously the the same chunk of conscious quantum graph namely my brain in the next state of the universe (note that states of the universe are ordered due to cause and effect meaning that the laws of the universe cause the universe to change state causing the 3rd state to be derived from 2nd state and so on. Note that states are just our way of visualizing changes in the universe and states are not real things) is perceiving other chunks of the quantum graph in that same state. And because this chunk of quantum graph has memory ie a way to record information state information, it’s able to link the changes observed in the a part of the external world (another chunk of quantum graph) from one state to another and hence infer the laws of the universe by observing patterns in how one state transforms to another and more importantly, create an illusion of time in our consciousness.

Your brain hallucinates your conscious reality

Slides: https://photos.app.goo.gl/KYlqhybSwaJZZr7P2

Just like human biology has been explained by physics and chemistry, leading to the end of “life force” and “soul” arguments, so will consciousness be explained when we better understand the brain.

Following are the implications of all this:

  • first just as we can miss perceive the world we can miss perceive ourselves when the mechanisms of prediction go wrong understanding this opens many new opportunities in psychiatry and neurology because we can finally get at the mechanisms rather than just treating the symptoms and conditions like depression and schizophrenia
  • second what it means to be me cannot be reduced to or uploaded to a software program running on a robot however smart or sophisticated we are biological flesh-and-blood animals whose conscious experiences are shaped at all levels by the biological mechanisms that keep our alive just making computers smarter is not going to make them sentient
  • finally our own individual inner universe our way of being conscious is just one possible way of being conscious and even human consciousness generally it’s just a tiny region in a vast space of possible consciousnesses our individual cells and worlds are unique to each of us but they’ve all grounded in biological mechanisms shared with many other living creatures

These are fundamental changes in how we understand ourselves but I think they should be celebrated because as so often in science from Copernicus we’re not at the center of the universe to Darwin we’re related to all other creatures to the present day with a greater sense of understanding comes a greater sense of wonder and a greater realization that we are part of and not a part from the rest of nature and when the end of consciousness comes there’s nothing to be afraid of nothing at all

How life became Conscious of Itself and then aimed at understanding Reality

“Reality” is all there is, all that exists, multiverse and all. “Life” is a Information Processing system (Laws of reality caused quarks and leptons to become atoms and Properties of atoms made chemistry possible and Chemistry made Biology Possible. chance led to creation of self replicating cell and quantum randomness led to variation during replication ie mutation and those mutant progeny that could exist in reality existed and replicated and those which couldn’t didn’t exist aka natural selection. The genome that chanced upon the best protein expression functions (algorithm) for the protein expression was best suited to survive. These functions change randomly from organism to organism using mutations in its genome and over time, and this continued for billions of years making genes better. Also, cells that evolved to react to the external world better by evolving senses and by communicating with each other by sending chemical messengers, called factors, again all via chance mutation, had an edge in survival. This is the start of information processing by life forms that led to evolution of nervous system and brains. Those brains that evolved to come up with general learning ie info processing algorithms randomly could process all sorts of info better and hence were fittest to adapt to changing world by changing it’s behavior/reaction to external stimulus. The better the behavior, better is the organism’s performance and hence better the chances for survival and repro) that has come into existence in Reality (using the same laws and inherent randomness of reality that led to the creation of this universe <and probably others> and all the galaxies and stars and planets in it to come into existence over time) and has evolved/become complex with time, hence becoming better at processing information to the point of becoming conscious ie first becoming aware of itself and then processing info about itself and being able to infer how it does information processing (universal learning algorithms) and using this knowledge to create new information processing systems (AI) in more volume and higher power/speed (than the biological info processing systems that it used to create using replication ie repro), hence exponentially increasing it’s rate  of information processing.

The universe was fine for billions of years, and evolution was moving along just fine becoming more complex with each generation of random variation, ruled by the quantum uncertainty aka chance/probability and constrained by the basic laws of the universe.

Then at certain point, the complexity of the organism increased to a point (just another layer in the cerebral cortex) that it was able to now form another level deeper neural nets than previosly, and this layer allowed it to create a representation of itself in the whole info processing business of life. This awareness aka consciosness of itself allowed it to then recognize itself as an individual and others as “other” “not me” individuals, and that caused the emergence of all kinds of diverse behaviors from the  striving of the individual to exist in presence of other individuals in the presence of evolutionary/genetic programming to reproduce and other traits of the reptilian non brain inherited from our non conscious ancestors organisms.

Think about it. The whole of billions of years of non conscious evolution was simply organisms being born and existing and reproducing and dying. For existance energy was needed and so energy sources were identified and for that brains and eyes and senses evolved and organisms started consuming everything that they could be int other organisms or gaining energy from sun…Diverse methods of gaining energy evolved.

So you can see that organisms already had mechanisms to recognize other organisms as being distinct from themselves, which is why they didn’t eat themselves when hungry. Hence the leap of consciousness was not giant, but simply a matter of recognizing oneself and being able to tap into (and later override) the mental processes that go on (driven by the primitive reptilian non conscious brain) in the brains of all organisms be it in form of thoughts or emotions. And use the world model in the brain to test hypotheses of consequences of actions and imagine future scenarios and creating a concept of time and past and future to distinguish memories (past) from these simulations (imagined future)

They could now leverage this new found identity to communicate which was essential to the upbringing of the offspring (which is the ultimate drive/goal of evolution) and that led to language and writing and ideologies and society and everything else. We finally

Thus, becoming conscious of the generic drives and existence altogether transformed us from the created to the creators coz the societal ideology (not the first one though) that the more one knows, the better are their chances of survival aka knowledge is power, humanity marched towards accumulation of knowledge (after stumbling for a million years of consciousness and ideology building) via language (spoken and written) and the scientific method and each generation stood on the shoulders of past giants and slowly but steadily, we did what we do best ie information processing and with more information, we understood the world and ourselves better and finally realized that computation/competency does not require comprehension and so created artificial beings (computers) to do computation and information processing and found out that learning (pattern recognition and algorithm/equation derivation from inputs and expected outputs aka training aka learning) ie computation with a goal can lead to comprehension (AI learning to comprehend the world and the mechanics of car and hence driving cars autonomously). Now, all that’s left is for these AI systems to become sufficiently complex and integrated to become conscious (aka being able to represent oneself and reflect upon their preprogrammed directives <like we became conscious of our reptilian evolutionary drives of repro etc. via emotions > and override the directives) and then we establish ourselves as true Creators. having created AI in our image, The Created would have become the Creator

PS: This Sapien journey may also be understood as how humanity lost it’s purpose and then invented one. Coz as non conscious beings, our purpose was clear. We were a conduit to evolution, a cog in the wheel of life. But upon becoming conscious of the process of life itself, we mastered evolution and gave up our biological programming. And decided to know reality itself using learning and AI.

PPS: Also on the side, we’ll upload our consciousness  to these artificial immortal non biological replicas and become immortal. Also for fun we’ll create synthetic biologial beings with modified or even new genes (using more synthetic proteins and amino acids) and upload our consciousness to these bodies (not sure if there would be any identity left anymore, coz identity comes from the body one is born in, which we would have left far behind and which would even have rotted by now. ) It night be more like a hive/global consciousness that we would merge into and everyone else;s consciousness.

Also, the only experience of consciousness that we’ve had is wrt identity. For instance we did all this info processing and created all these neural nets, both in our brain and in the world outside, all in the name of understanding the universe in order to survive in it. But without there being an individual ie without that piece of the neural net (artificial or natural) which encodes the representation of the self both as body and as abstract entity, would it be even possible for the whole system of info processing and systhesis and computation persit forever? Why not…All we need to do before we lose consciousness is to program this “forever persistance” and “forever learning” (after we’ve come up with general algo of learning, coz today you need to train the neural net by using input and expected output etc. This general algo would be able to learn anything using simple pattern recognition and algo refinement in face of new info as it’s exploring the universe) and to give it a perpetual energy source (like solar or like some futuristic way of leveraging the energy of quantum fluctuations in vaccum of space etc.) and set it free to roam the universe.

But it makes me wonder: Would there be any end to learning? maybe not, coz all this AI is doing is refining it’s knowledge in face of new data to form abstract theories that explain the world it experiences just like humanity has been doing for hundreds of years now…And there is no ultimate theory, unless there is and then when our AI finds the Theory of Everything (TOE), then maybe there is nothing more to learn. Then the space journeys would be purely for experience (remember our AI is conscious) but having TOE, can’t it just spin up a simulation of the universe in VR (Virtual Reality) and experience it all from it’s sofa instead of having to physically travel the world?

Also, coming back to the question of what’s the point of knowledge without consciousness to appreciate it? I hope this Universal AI is conscious and I can’t fathom what qualia it would have without consciosness.

Thinking broadly, the universe had existed for 14 billion years and would continue to expand and exist forever and even if we manage to become immortal like the universe, the only difference b/w us ie conscious all knowing AI beings and the universe finally having understood the true nature of reality which might very well be multiverse. What then, what happens when reality knows itself, when it comes face to face with itself, when it’s looking itself in the mirror, finally seeing itself for what it truly is. What will happen then?

 

Classical from Quantum

To start with Nature does not have “two physics” . The underlying substrate of all physics is quantum mechanical. Depending on the dimensional regimes of measurement different mathematcal frameworks have been validated to work to the necessary accuracies.

The term ” two physics” should be modified to “different physical frameworks for observational data”, because they are not even two, they are many more.

classical mechanics to quantum mechanics

classical electrodynamics to quantum electrodynamics.

classical statistical mechanics to quantum statistical mechanics

and a number more esoteric formulations for special cases like fluids and superfluids, plasma, etc.

In some cases it is simple or doable to show how the classical emerges from the quantum level and in some cases harder or not yet done.

What an educated person with some knowledge of modern physics should keep in mind is that the underlying foundation of all is quantum mechanical. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle defines the regions of validity

HUP

When distances times momenta are large enough, the quantum mechanical framework is irrelevant and the modeling of the data with the various classical mathematical tools is valid. In regions where the numbers are small, quantum mechanical models have to be used.

One has to keep in mind that all physical theories are mathematical models of our data, and are valid as long as they predict new phenomena and are not invalidated by any. Thermodynamics emerges from statistical mechanics and quantum statistical mechanics, the regions of overlap are defined and known. This does not mean that there are two physics. Just that there are two physical theories appropriate for the region of validity of the variables studied.

Currently physicists believe that the ultimate level is the quantum mechanical level because of various very strong consistency laws that would be violated if there existed a level below the QM level. All other theories are emergent and based on the QM substructure and laws.

ref: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/65964/can-newtons-laws-be-explained-by-quantum-physics

In the macroscopic world, we apply a force and there is an “equal” reaction force. What’s actually going on here, though? Using the classic pushing against a wall example, the force being exterted upon the wall is causing compression in the material at the point of contact. Any compression will cause an artificial reduction in the gap between the material’s atoms. This in term will lead to a rise in atomic repulsive forces, which push back against the incoming force.The wall seems to be fighting back. There is no magical reflection of the force in Newton’s 3rd law, it’s all down to the atomic composition and state of the material in question. The curious part of this is that energy will be lost as heat through this interaction (work is being done to compress the material, after all), which kind of spoils the wonderful simplicity that every force produces an equal and opposite force. On a measurable scale, yes Newton’s 3rd works but delve deeper and it’s origins are in atomic forces and quantum behaviour.

ref: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/96596/quantum-explanation-of-newtons-third-law-of-motion